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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Nov 06, 2019 9:30 am 
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NASA Confirms Voyager 2 Has Left the Solar System
By Ryan Whitwam on November 5, 2019 at 1:26 pm

https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/301515-nasa-confirms-voyager-2-has-left-the-solar-system

Humanity first left the solar system in 2012 when the Voyager 1 probe passed into interstellar space decades after leaving the planets behind. Now, there’s a second spacecraft beyond the limits of our solar system: Voyager 2. Luckily, Voyager 2’s instruments are in somewhat better shape than Voyager 1’s, so scientists were able to observe the transition from the heliosphere, which is dominated by the sun, to the interstellar medium (ISM).

Both Voyager probes launched in 1977, with Voyager 2 heading into space a few weeks before Voyager 1. The two probes are physically identical, but they took different paths through the solar system. They took advantage of the “Grand Tour,” an alignment of the planets that occurs only once every 175 years. Voyager 1 visited and got gravity assists from Jupiter and Saturn before heading off toward the edge of the solar system. Voyager 2 swung past Jupter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus. It made its last planetary observation of Uranus in 1989, almost a decade after Voyager 1 had started its long march toward the edge of the solar system.

When Voyager 1 reached the edge of our solar system, known as the heliopause, it no longer had a functional plasma spectrometer. As a result, there was some debate about when, exactly, the probe left our solar system. So, we missed the expected transition from warm solar plasma to the denser cold plasma of the ISM. Eventually, measurements of local electrons and magnetic field shifts confirmed it was in interstellar space.

Voyager 2 has just sent back data proving that it has also crossed the heliopause, and it had a fully functional plasma spectrometer. The transition happened about a year ago in November 2018, and the changeover was roughly in-line with what scientists expected based on Voyager 1’s indirect readings. As Voyager 2 crossed from the heliosphere to the ISM, it detected a 20-fold increase in plasma density.

Voyager 1 and 2 crossed the heliopause at roughly the same distance from the sun, 121.6 AU and 119 AU, respectively. However, their exit points were about 150 AU apart. Scientists are studying the discrepancies in the data in hopes of gaining a better understanding of the boundary between our solar system and the wider galaxy. For example, Voyager 2 detected a continuous change in magnetic field directions as it crossed into the ISM, whereas Voyager 1 did not. Voyager 2 has also continued to see low-energy particles from the sun in the ISM, but Voyager 1 didn’t.

It will be some time before we have more data to study. The only functional probe that has any hope of reaching the heliopause is New Horizons, which is currently flying through the Kuiper Belt. It could leave the solar system around 2040, but we don’t know if it will maintain communication with Earth that long.


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Nov 06, 2019 7:02 pm 
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The last transmission was...

"...oh shit, I left the stove on...."

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Ummmm, you guys know it has a plutonium power source and you're all fucked...

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Nov 12, 2019 8:06 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Nov 27, 2019 4:34 pm 
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Out There

In Praise of Lumpy Gravy From the Cosmic Kitchen

Without that texture, there’d be none of us.


Dennis Overbye

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As Thanksgiving approaches, would-be chefs and hosts, including apparently my editors, are perfecting their techniques for making the all-important gravy for the turkey and potatoes.

I have my moments as a cook — come over for my stardust waffles some Sunday morning — but I have never had the patience or skill to master gravy, so it usually comes out lumpy. This is a problem at the dinner table. On the grandest possible scale, however, lumps are a good thing.

During the Big Bang 14 billion years ago, a fizzy stew of energy and gas emerged that became, and still suffuses, the universe. Astronomers initially thought this cosmic gravy was perfectly uniform, like something Julia Child might have whipped up. But not even Einstein’s “Old One” can make a perfect gravy, apparently, and in 1992 astronomers discovered that the cosmic gravy is, like mine, lumpy. And that’s a reason to be thankful this year, or any year, because without those lumps there would be no us.

“If you’re religious, it’s like seeing God,” George Smoot, an astronomer at the University of California’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory who won a Nobel Prize for the 1992 discovery, said at the time.
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We’ll bring you stories that capture the wonders of the human body, nature and the cosmos.

That fizzy energy stew of the Big Bang manifests itself today as a bath of microwave radiation that fills the sky. In effect, we live amid the fading remnant of the primordial fireball; astronomers call it the cosmic microwave background.

This cosmic gravy has been the subject of three Nobel Prizes: one to Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, the Bell Labs astronomers who discovered the radiation by accident back in 1964; one to Dr. Smoot and his collaborator, John Mather, in 2006, and the third to James Peebles of Princeton, for his early work on the properties of this fireball.

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Dec 04, 2019 7:17 am 
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Hoag's Object Is a Galaxy Within a Galaxy Within a Galaxy (and Nobody Knows Why)
By Brandon Specktor 3 hours ago Science & Astronomy

https://www.space.com/hoags-object-perfect-ring-mystery.html

Image
With a perfectly symmetrical ring circling a red sphere of stars, Hoag's object is one of the prettiest mysteries in the universe. (Image credit: NASA/ESA, Processing: Benoit Blanco)

Look closely at the serpent constellation slithering through the northern sky, and you might see a galaxy within a galaxy within a galaxy.

This cosmic turducken is known as Hoag's object, and it has befuddled stargazers since astronomer Arthur Hoag discovered it in 1950.

The object in question is a rare, ring-shaped galaxy measuring some 100,000 light-years across (slightly larger than the Milky Way) and located 600 million light-years from Earth. In a recent image of the oddball object taken by the Hubble Space Telescope and processed by geophysicist Benoit Blanco, a bright ring of billions of blue stars forms a perfect circle around a much smaller and denser sphere of reddish stars. In the dark gap between the two stellar circles, another ring galaxy — much, much farther away from us — peeks out to say hello.

What's going on here, and what tore Hoag's object in two? Astronomers still aren't sure; ring galaxies account for less than 0.1% of all known galaxies, and so they aren't the easiest objects to study. Hoag himself suggested that the galaxy's peculiar ring formation was merely an optical illusion caused by gravitational lensing (an effect that occurs when extremely high-mass objects bend and magnify light). Later studies with better telescopes disproved this idea.

Another popular hypothesis suggests that Hoag's object was once a more common, disk-shaped galaxy but an ancient collision with a neighboring galaxy ripped a hole through the disk's belly and permanently warped its gravitational pull. If such a collision occurred in the last 3 billion years, then astronomers looking through radio telescopes should have been able to see some of the fallout from the accident. No such evidence has been found.

If there was a cosmic crash at the core of Hoag's object, it must have happened so long ago that all the evidence has been swept away. With only a handful of other known ring galaxies available to study (none of which shows the perfectly symmetrical characteristics found in this one), Hoag's object remains a mystery wrapped in a riddle inside an enigma — you know, like a turducken.


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Mon Dec 09, 2019 9:48 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sat Dec 14, 2019 12:28 am 
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Big volcanic bump unlike anything seen before found on the moon
Robin George Andrews

Sometime after the solar system formed 4.6 billion years ago, a projectile slammed into Earth’s youthful moon and formed the 620-mile-wide basin known as the Crisium basin. No one knows exactly when this impact happened, but for decades scientists have been trying to solve the puzzle as part of a larger debate over whether the moon and, by proxy, Earth endured a period of frenzied meteor bombardment in their early histories.

Now, scientists scouring the region say they’ve spotted a crater within the basin that appears to contain pristine impact melt, a type of volcanic rock that can act like a definitive geologic clock. If future astronauts or a robot could obtain a sample and tease out its age, that may help reveal what was happening on Earth during the primordial period when life first emerged on our planet.

And, as an added bonus, the discovery comes with an intriguing mystery: The basin also holds a geologic blister the size of Washington, D.C., that’s unlike anything else seen in the solar system. As the team reports in an upcoming paper in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, this volcanic lump appears to have been inflated and cracked by peculiar underground magmatic activity that the researchers can’t currently explain.

“I’m thoroughly confused by it,” says Clive Neal, an expert in lunar geology at the University of Notre Dame who was not involved with the new research.

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© Photograph by Babak Tafreshi, Nat Geo Image Collection
A view of the moon through a telescope showcases the many well-preserved craters and dark lava plains on our close celestial companion.

Dating an apocalypse

Our record of past impacts on Earth is spotty, largely because environmental weathering and the constant churn of plate tectonics erase the evidence. By contrast, the airless and inactive moon preserves billions of years’ worth of craters stacked on top of craters. In this way, our orbital companion offers an indirect record of impact events in our planet’s past. (During a recent lunar eclipse, astronomers witnessed the moment a meteor hit the moon.)

Among other puzzles, knowing what was happening to Earth so long ago matters to researchers trying to understand the origins of life. While scientists still debate the age of the oldest known fossils, various proposed examples date back to between 3.5 billion and 4.28 billion years ago. In a perplexing coincidence, evidence from the moon suggests that this is when early Earth was being pelted by leftover pieces from the formation of the solar system.

The Apollo missions and several of the Soviet Union’s robotic expeditions brought back rock samples from lunar basins and large craters on the moon’s near side, which researchers used to date the various impact events. Many of these rocks yielded ages clustered between 3.8 and four billion years, suggesting that there was a spike in the already high number of impacts on the moon. This 200-million-year-long window came to be known as the Late Heavy Bombardment.

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Moon seen from space.

However, recent rethinks have brought many of those basin ages into doubt. The source of many of those lunar samples are unclear, with several now thought to have been ejected from certain basins and thrown into others, giving scientists false ages. And if there was a spike 3.9 billion years ago, as the Apollo-era samples suggest, then it is difficult to explain why there was a quiet period of almost 700 million years after the solar system formed.

“Given that the Late Heavy Bombardment is now looking shakier and shakier, it's critical that we determine whether those giant lunar impacts really did form at around the same time,” says Paul Byrne, a planetary scientist at North Carolina State University who was not involved with the work.

Only one lunar basin, Imbrium, is generally agreed to be well dated at 3.9 billion years old, says Bill Bottke, a planetary scientist and asteroid expert at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, who was not involved with the new work. More precise basin ages, obtained from their impact melt, are needed to say whether the ancient spike was genuine. And that’s where Crisium basin comes in.

The sea of crises

A year before he died, renowned lunar scientist Paul Spudis published a paper that proposed Crisium basin contained slivers of its original impact melt, so Moriarty and his colleagues decided to use lunar orbiter data to try and find it. Determining that the purest impact melt was magnesium-rich, they perused the basin for that element’s distinctive spectral signature.

The original impact that formed Crisium basin was so powerful that it created a melt sheet up to 9.3 miles thick. Inconveniently, though, profuse eruptions of lava began to flood the basin beginning roughly 3.6 billion years ago, forming a wide volcanic sea—also known as Mare Crisium, or the Sea of Crises—that covered up much of the original impact melt. (Find out about a mysterious mass found lurking in the moon’s south polar region.)

Luckily, previous mapping had revealed that this scenario permitted “islands” of rock within the lava-filled basin, known as Kīpukas, to survive. On Earth and elsewhere on the moon, Kīpukas are essentially bits of elevated land surrounded by younger, cooled lava, and the team reasoned that these may be places where the Crisium impact melt was still exposed.

As the team examined the region, one Kīpuka stuck out—literally. The city-size lunar lump was oddly raised and cracked like an eggshell, and it sat unbounded by any other landforms.

Looking closer, a small crater on this Kīpuka revealed that much of it was made of frozen volcanic rock. The best origin story the team could think of was that the cracked lump was pushed upward by subsurface volcanic activity of some kind. But for now, the feature is a mystery. What’s more, although it contains some impact melt, the rocks are pretty mangled, so the team had to keep looking for better windows into the moon’s impact history.

Mountain of frozen fire

Fortunately, they found a strong magnesium signature in the 22-mile-wide Yerkes Crater, which is nestled inside Crisium basin. The impact was powerful enough to form what’s known as a central peak, made from debris that flowed like a fluid and then solidified into a mound in the middle of the crater. Its spectral fingerprints suggest that this spire kept plenty of Crisium impact melt out of reach of the lava sea that would eventually flood the basin’s floor.

There is a chance that this impact melt came from Yerkes’s own formation and not the bigger one that made the Crisium basin, says Neal. But if the team is correct, a mission to Yerkes may definitively tell us the age of a second lunar basin. If it is 3.9 billion years old, like Imbrium, that supports the idea of an ancient spike in meteor impacts. If it’s much older, though, that suggests the ginormous impacts were more spread out over time.

In the case of a more distributed meteor rainstorm, only parts of Earth would have become biological wastelands. But a concentrated spike may have totally melted the planet’s crust and filled the atmosphere with silicate vapors, says study coauthor Dan Moriarty, a lunar geologist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. If that happened when life first arose, he says, then it is truly remarkable living things exist on Earth at all.

So, while the results of this survey offer some insight, until we pay Crisium and the moon’s other basins a visit, the solar system’s earliest days will likely remain mysterious.

http://www.msn.com/en-nz/news/techandsc ... ocid=ientp

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sat Dec 14, 2019 11:26 pm 
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Why it might hard to see the Geminids on Sunday night
Sae Strang
10 hrs ago

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© Provided by Newshub
Only the brightest of meteors may be spotted in this year's edition of the famous Geminids.

The shower of shooting stars, which is set to peak on Sunday night, coincides with a particularly bright moon, which will block the view of dimmer meteors.

Meteor showers are best viewed in the early hours of the morning, from 1 or 2am until dawn, according to thhti Auckland's Stardome Observatory Planetarium.

The name Geminid comes from the constellation Gemini, Latin for 'twins', where they appear to originate.

"Globally, the Geminids are the most active shower peaking at around 100 meteors per hour," said Stardome.

But as Gemini is in New Zealand's northern sky, "we will miss out on half of them".

Despite the brightness of the moon, Stardome encourages people to find a dark spot, grab a blanket, check the weather and keep an eye of for meteors.

In 2020 the moon is expected to stay "conveniently" out of the picture.

http://www.msn.com/en-nz/news/national/ ... tp#image=1

the sky is clear and there's fairly low light pollution in my neck of the woods
so it could be a good show, there's loose talk of taking a thirty minute
midnight drive to the dark side of our local mountain range.....
shame I've got work tomorrow.....

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Fri Dec 20, 2019 4:35 pm 
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‘It did not obey the laws of physics’:
Pilot who spotted famous Tic Tac UFO
breaks silence after 15 years

Colin Drury
9 hrs ago

A US fighter pilot whose plane filmed the famous – and still unexplained – “tic tac” UFO footage has spoken for the first time about his close encounter.

Chad Underwood broke 15 years of silence on the subject, describing the object he recorded over the Pacific Ocean as “not behaving within the normal laws of physics”.

He said: “It was going from like 50,000 feet to 100 feet in like seconds, which is not possible.”

The tic tac – so-called because of its rounded shape and white colour – was caught on video as the US Navy attempted to identify a series of objects spotted on radar flying off America’s west coast in November 2004.

The authenticity of the film – which was first made public in 2017 – was finally confirmed by the Pentagon earlier this year. Officials said they still had no idea what the recorded object was. Weather phenomenon, manmade craft and birds have all been ruled out.

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© Provided by The Independent

Speaking to the New York Magazine, Mr Underwood said: “The thing that stood out to me the most was how erratic it was behaving. And what I mean by erratic is that its changes in altitude, air speed, and aspect were just unlike things that I’ve ever encountered before flying against other air targets.

“It was just behaving in ways that aren’t physically normal. That’s what caught my eye. Because, aircraft, whether they’re manned or unmanned, still have to obey the laws of physics. They have to have some source of lift, some source of propulsion. The tic tac was not doing that.”

And he added: “You’re up there flying, like, ‘Okay. It’s not behaving in a manner that’s predictable or is normal by how flying objects physically move’.”

The sighting came during a fortnight in which the USS Princeton had noted unknown aircraft intermittently passing across its radar systems off the US west coast. The contact was considered so inexplicable that the system was shut down and restarted to check for bugs — but operators continued to track the mysterious object afterwards.

Then on 14 November, Commander David Fravor was flying a mission off the USS Nimitz when he eyeballed the object. It seemed, he later said, to dive below the water, resurface, and speed out of sight when he approached.

As Fravor landed, he told Underwood – just preparing to take off on his own mission – to be aware of unusual activity.

“Dave Fravor was like, ‘Hey, dude. BOLO,’ like, be on the lookout for just something weird,” Underwood said in his interview published on Thursday. “So, we go out to where our designated training area is. We’re not necessarily looking for something, but the Princeton had a specific object that they wanted us to hunt, for lack of a better word. And all of a sudden, I got this blip on my radar.”

He said he did not see the object with his own eyes because he was focused on capturing video footage for intelligence to analyse later.

But he added: “The thing that was the most interesting to me [was] how erratic this thing was. If it was obeying physics like a normal object that you would encounter in the sky – an aircraft, or a cruise missile, or some sort of special project that the government didn’t tell you about – that would have made more sense to me. The part that drew our attention was how it wasn’t behaving within the normal laws of physics.”

Unusually, he was never fully debriefed on his sighting but had to take a phone call about the incident so soon after landing, he was still in his flight gear at the time.

“Probably within about 20 minutes or so, I spoke to someone that I assume was from NORAD [North American Aerospace Defense Command],” he revealed. “I have no idea like what level up to who I was talking to. I just wanted to answer them. I was just basically handed a telephone and said, ‘Hey, answer these questions’.”

In the 15 years since, he said he has not speculated on what it might have been and had not previously given interviews because he did not want his name “attached to the ‘little green men’ crazies that are out there.”

He added: “I do not want to be part of that community. It is just what we call a UFO. I couldn’t identify it. It was flying. And it was an object. It’s as simple as that. I’ll let the nerds, like, do the math on what it was likely to be. I just happened to be the person that brought back the video.”


The Independent

http://www.msn.com/en-nz/news/world/it- ... ocid=ientp

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sun Dec 22, 2019 11:41 am 
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Boeing's Starliner Lands Safely Back To Earth After Aborted Space Station Mission

December 22, 20191:36 PM ET


"The capsule was carrying holiday presents, clothes and food, cargo that was supposed to be dropped off at the International Space Station. "






Christmas, no presents, ...fucked. :x

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sun Dec 22, 2019 11:43 am 
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They were gonna get new heat shields too...

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sun Dec 22, 2019 3:18 pm 
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Bart van Leeuwen
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The upside-down writing reads, "Fake news" and "Hoax". 8)


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Thu Dec 26, 2019 10:14 am 
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'Ring Of Fire' Eclipse Sweeps Across Skies In Middle East And Southeast Asia

December 26, 201911:03 AM ET
https://www.npr.org/2019/12/26/791471169/ring-of-fire-eclipse-sweeps-across-skies-in-middle-east-and-southeast-asia
Bill Chappell

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The moon moves in front of the sun in a rare "ring of fire" annular solar eclipse, as seen in the sky over Singapore on Thursday.

From the Middle East to Southeast Asia, people looked skyward for a chance to see an annular eclipse on Thursday, as the unusual celestial event took place over a long but thin band of the world. The striking "ring of fire" phenomenon — with the moon blotting out all but a sliver of the sun — began in Saudi Arabia and ended northeast of Guam in the Pacific Ocean.

An annular eclipse occurs when the moon is too far away from Earth to block the entire sun during an eclipse. Instead of the sun's full bright disk, or a crescent of light, viewers in areas of complete annularity see a fiery halo around the moon.

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The event began in the early morning hours — in Oman, dramatic images showed the sun being obscured as it rose above the Gulf of Oman. Photographers captured similar scenes across the Middle East and in India.

Image

By the time the eclipse began happening farther east, the sun was higher in the sky, and millions of people used protective eyewear to watch the moon partially blot out the sun.

People outside of the roughly 73-mile-wide central path were still able to see at least a partial solar eclipse if their skies were clear. But even through light clouds, the bright halo effect was striking.

Image

From Saudi Arabia, the annular eclipse dipped to the southeast, passing over Oman, southern India and Sri Lanka. As it crossed over Singapore and Indonesia, the eclipse began curving to the northeast, over the Northern Mariana Islands.

At the point of its greatest duration over Singapore and Indonesia, the eclipse obscured more than 90% of the sun and lasted more than three minutes.

Image

From its start in the Middle East to its finish over the ocean, the entire phenomenon lasted for roughly 3 1/2 hours.

In southern India, the dazzling eclipse had set off widespread anticipation — and some worries. As NPR's Sushmita Pathak reports from Mumbai for our Newscast unit:

"One Indian state announced a public holiday and many Hindu temples across the country were closed. Some faithful believe an eclipse is a bad omen and advise against eating or going out when it's happening. To counter superstitions, one pro-science group in the southern Indian city of Bengaluru gathered on the steps of the city's town hall for breakfast during the eclipse."

Image

Explaining the celestial mechanics behind Thursday's eclipse – and how it got its name — NPR's Joe Palca says:

"If the moon's orbit were perfectly circular ... all eclipses would be the same ... but the moon's obit is elliptical, meaning sometimes it's farther away from Earth than other times.

"When the moon is farther away, it appears smaller in the sky. That also means that when it passes in front of the sun, it doesn't completely obscure the disk of the sun. Instead, a bright ring appears where the sun's light peeks out around the moon. That ring is called an annulus, hence the name annular eclipse."


The next annular eclipse will occur on June 21, 2020, taking place in skies over central Africa, southeast Asia and China, according to NASA. But that phenomenon will be very short, with the full effect lasting less than a minute. The second eclipse that's predicted for 2020 will take place at the end of the year, and it will be visible only in South America and Antarctica.


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sat Jan 25, 2020 9:13 am 
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Fresh-baked chocolate chip cookies, another first in space
By Ashley Strickland, CNN

https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/24/world/cookies-in-space-scn-trnd/index.html
Updated 11:20 AM ET, Fri January 24, 2020

Image

(CNN)The first batch of cookies in space have been baked in a zero-gravity oven, but the astronaut bakers didn't even get to try them. Instead, three of the five cookies returned to Earth on one of SpaceX's Dragon capsules on January 8 and were moved to cold storage in Houston.
But in a nice bonus, the International Space Station smelled like warm, fresh-baked chocolate chip cookies during the experiment in December. On December 26, NASA astronaut Christina Koch tweeted that they had space cookies and milk available for Santa on the station.
"I can smell it," said Luca Parmitano, European Space Agency astronaut and master baker of the cookies during the experiment. "And I do observe some chocolate melting. But it certainly doesn't look like cookie dough anymore."

Image
Astronaut Christina Koch looks at one of the cookies during the experiment.

Anything that brings the feeling of home is a great gift to the astronauts, especially those who spent the holidays in space. Parmitano recently talked about how even though they had Santa hats, stockings and a tiny Christmas tree on the station, it's nothing compared to spending time with their families and enjoying good food and traditions together.

The Experiment

Husband and wife duo Ian and Jordana Fichtenbaum, founders of Zero G Kitchen, developed the first zero-gravity oven that arrived on the space station in November.

They joined forces with Nanoracks, the leading provider of commercial access to space, and DoubleTree by Hilton, the leading provider of gooey chocolate chip cookies to hotel guests, to send hospitality and innovation to the ISS.

In order to design the oven, they had to overcome issues like the lack of gravity -- which also impacts the ability to keep food secure and stationary -- and a limited power supply for the oven.

It's composed of a sleek, cylindrical chamber that houses an insertable silicone frame, which surrounds the food to hold it in place. Cylindrical heating coils focus the heat on the food in the center of the chamber and rise to temperature much more slowly than traditional ovens, to accommodate the power constraints.

Parmitano baked the dough in the oven, one cookie at a time, and Koch kept an eye on the cookies' progress.

Typically, DoubleTree's cookies bake in a convection oven at 300 degrees Fahrenheit for 16 to 18 minutes, the hospitality company said in a press release.

The astronauts tested out baking temperatures and times with the five cookies. And they learned that baking in space takes a long time.

The first four cookies were baked at 300 degrees for 25 minutes, 75 minutes and 120 minutes, respectively. The fifth cookie was baked at 325 degrees for 130 minutes and cooled outside of the oven for ten minutes.

Image
The zero-gravity oven, cookie dough and a tin of cookies sent to the space station.

The shortest baking time revealed that the cookie was underbaked. At 75 minutes, the aroma of fresh-baked cookies began to fill the space station. The fourth and fifth cookies, with longer baking times, were deemed the most successful.
The cookies also maintained their spherical shape, just like they do on Earth.

"While we have initial visual and scent feedback from the crew aboard the ISS, we're excited to dive into fully understanding the baking results -- including breaking down why the bake time and temperature in space varies from what we are used to seeing on Earth, as well as if the baking tray, which was designed specifically for microgravity, impacted the final shape of the baked cookies," said Mary Murphy, senior internal payloads manager with Nanoracks.
The cookies that were returned to Earth will be tested by food science professionals. They will also likely make their way to museum collections, like the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

Kirsi Goldynia contributed to this report.


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sat Jan 25, 2020 10:34 am 
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US Space Force logo looks like one from Star Trek

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US Space Force logo on left and the Star Trek emblem on right

The newly unveiled logo for US Space Force appears to have boldly gone where Star Trek went before.

Twitter users noted that the emblem, revealed by President Donald Trump, bears an uncanny likeness to the insignia from the cult sci-fi TV series.

The striking resemblance left many critics as stunned as though they had been zapped by Captain Kirk's phaser.

But others online insisted the logo was really based on the US Air Force One.
The intergalactic controversy comes after mockery erupted last week when it emerged Space Force troops would wear woodland camouflage uniforms.

Unveiling the insignia on Friday, Mr Trump tweeted: "After consultation with our Great Military Leaders, designers, and others, I am pleased to present the new logo for the United States Space Force, the Sixth Branch of our Magnificent Military!"


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Mon Jan 27, 2020 6:08 am 
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Dave Granlund
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Bart van Leeuwen
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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Jan 28, 2020 2:31 pm 
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These before-and-after selfies of the Curiosity rover show what seven years on the surface of Mars can do to you:

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Jan 28, 2020 3:24 pm 
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This first image shows the Mars Rovers normal shadow profile
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The second image shows someone in some sort of suit working o or cleaning the Rover... :shock:
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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Jan 28, 2020 3:36 pm 
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Human Shadow Seen on Mars?

https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/a-curious-shadow/


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Jan 28, 2020 5:47 pm 
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I figured as much, but these are just rocks... :shock:

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Looks like stuff that's now junk to me... :smoke:


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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Jan 29, 2020 1:27 am 
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Plook wrote:
This first image shows the Mars Rovers normal shadow profile
Image

The second image shows someone in some sort of suit working o or cleaning the Rover... :shock:
Image

I have no doubt that is Elvis servicing the rover.....car guy, he loves the new matt finish.....

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Wed Jan 29, 2020 1:43 am 
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Plook wrote:
I figured as much, but these are just rocks... :shock:

Image

Image

Image

Looks like stuff that's now junk to me... :smoke:


Cast your mind back a bunch of billion years, Mars could have had an atmosphere
oceans forests wildlife and people.....
They used their planet up one way or another and died out, leaving the "rocky" desert it is today.....

but what do I know.....I read a lot of fiction..... :lol:

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Sat Feb 01, 2020 1:43 pm 
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They had green Trumps an B0ls0nar0s then, it was too late...

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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Mon Feb 03, 2020 8:25 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Space Is Deep
PostPosted: Tue Feb 04, 2020 8:53 pm 
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You may think you're cool.

But you're not Astronaut-Jessica-Meir-taking-a-selfie-during-a-spacewalk-showing-her-reflection-in-the-International-Space-Station-with-the-Earth-in-the-background-just-as-the-Sun-is-rising cool...

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