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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Fri Mar 13, 2020 1:20 pm 
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cory1984 wrote:
Why 70 Percent Alcohol Disinfects Better Than 91 Percent, According to a Microbiologist
by Ashley Abramson
Published: Mar 9, 2020

https://www.apartmenttherapy.com/isopropyl-alcohol-percent-disinfecting-36723904

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When you’re worried about getting sick, it’s natural to bring out the big guns, like bleach or rubbing alcohol. Both of these products are effective at disinfecting your surfaces, but did you know there’s a counter-intuitive rule of thumb to follow when you clean with alcohol? It has to do with the percentage of alcohol by volume.

You would think alcohol solutions with a higher percentage would be more powerful at killing germs on your high-touch items like phones and doorknobs, right? A lower percent-alcohol means there’s more water diluting the mix in the bottle. But according to microbiology, 70 percent alcohol is probably more effective than 91 percent for disinfecting—depending on what kind of germs you’re trying to kill.

Here’s why a lower-percentage alcohol might be a better weapon against germs:

According to Dr. Elizabeth Scott, professor of microbiology at Simmons Center for Hygiene and Health in Home and Community at Simmons University in Boston, higher-percentage alcohols are more concentrated. That means lower percentages, like 70 percent, have more water in them. Turns out, the water is actually an important ingredient here.

Basically, a 90 or 91 percent alcohol solution is too powerful in some cases: It fries the outside of the cell before it can get into the inside and kill the actual germ. 70 percent alcohol is just the right proportion of water and alcohol to zap the entire cell.

“Seventy percent alcohol has some water in it that allows it to cross a cell membrane, to really get into the bacteria to kill them,” Scott says.

Interestingly, Scott explains this rule of thumb only applies when you’re attempting to fend off bacteria. Alcohol’s effectiveness against viruses depends on the unique virus. Viruses with an envelope structure—including the flu virus, the common cold, HIV, and the new coronavirus—can be can be deactivated by alcohol solutions (like hand sanitizer) of 60 percent or more, while others like norovirus won’t be effectively targeted by any concentration of alcohol. (Hand-washing helps to physically remove every type or virus and bacteria from your hands, and is an important part of any hygiene routine.)

Practically, how does this rule-of-thumb apply to home hygiene? If you’re cutting raw chicken on the counter and want to effectively disinfect the surface to prevent cross-contamination of E. coli and salmonella bacteria, you’d want to opt for 70 percent alcohol. But if you’re trying to disinfect a surface that might have viruses lingering on it—for example, if someone in your house has the flu—any dilution of alcohol will work as long as it’s above the recommended 60 percent.

In any case, it’s important to focus on hygiene practices like thorough hand washing (20 seconds of scrubbing each time!) and targeted hygiene (regularly disinfecting high-traffic hand-contact areas in your home, especially if someone sick has touched them). Stay healthy!


And iso (rubbing alcohol), as the pic above is better (less corrosive) than ethylic alcohol for surfaces...

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Fri Mar 13, 2020 6:21 pm 
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Mr_Green_Genes wrote:
cory1984 wrote:
Why 70 Percent Alcohol Disinfects Better Than 91 Percent, According to a Microbiologist
by Ashley Abramson
Published: Mar 9, 2020

https://www.apartmenttherapy.com/isopropyl-alcohol-percent-disinfecting-36723904

Image

When you’re worried about getting sick, it’s natural to bring out the big guns, like bleach or rubbing alcohol. Both of these products are effective at disinfecting your surfaces, but did you know there’s a counter-intuitive rule of thumb to follow when you clean with alcohol? It has to do with the percentage of alcohol by volume.

You would think alcohol solutions with a higher percentage would be more powerful at killing germs on your high-touch items like phones and doorknobs, right? A lower percent-alcohol means there’s more water diluting the mix in the bottle. But according to microbiology, 70 percent alcohol is probably more effective than 91 percent for disinfecting—depending on what kind of germs you’re trying to kill.

Here’s why a lower-percentage alcohol might be a better weapon against germs:

According to Dr. Elizabeth Scott, professor of microbiology at Simmons Center for Hygiene and Health in Home and Community at Simmons University in Boston, higher-percentage alcohols are more concentrated. That means lower percentages, like 70 percent, have more water in them. Turns out, the water is actually an important ingredient here.

Basically, a 90 or 91 percent alcohol solution is too powerful in some cases: It fries the outside of the cell before it can get into the inside and kill the actual germ. 70 percent alcohol is just the right proportion of water and alcohol to zap the entire cell.

“Seventy percent alcohol has some water in it that allows it to cross a cell membrane, to really get into the bacteria to kill them,” Scott says.

Interestingly, Scott explains this rule of thumb only applies when you’re attempting to fend off bacteria. Alcohol’s effectiveness against viruses depends on the unique virus. Viruses with an envelope structure—including the flu virus, the common cold, HIV, and the new coronavirus—can be can be deactivated by alcohol solutions (like hand sanitizer) of 60 percent or more, while others like norovirus won’t be effectively targeted by any concentration of alcohol. (Hand-washing helps to physically remove every type or virus and bacteria from your hands, and is an important part of any hygiene routine.)

Practically, how does this rule-of-thumb apply to home hygiene? If you’re cutting raw chicken on the counter and want to effectively disinfect the surface to prevent cross-contamination of E. coli and salmonella bacteria, you’d want to opt for 70 percent alcohol. But if you’re trying to disinfect a surface that might have viruses lingering on it—for example, if someone in your house has the flu—any dilution of alcohol will work as long as it’s above the recommended 60 percent.

In any case, it’s important to focus on hygiene practices like thorough hand washing (20 seconds of scrubbing each time!) and targeted hygiene (regularly disinfecting high-traffic hand-contact areas in your home, especially if someone sick has touched them). Stay healthy!


And iso (rubbing alcohol), as the pic above is better (less corrosive) than ethylic alcohol for surfaces...


isopropyl alcohol is a restricted chemical in NZ.....

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2020 12:54 am 
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Van Morrison, Mark Knopfler and Frank Zappa Were Once Leo Sayer’s
Backing Singers

by Paul Cashmere on April 14th, 2020.

One of the lesser known fun-facts about Leo Sayer is that he once recorded a song titled ‘Passion’ and the backing singers were Mark Knopfler, Van Morrison and Frank Zappa.

The song ‘Passion’ was relegated to a 1986 b-side to the single ‘Solo’ and never made it to a Leo Sayer album.

Speaking on Saturday Night with Dr Sally Cockburn on 3AW, 2GB, 4BC and 2CC Leo told the story. “I went to AIR Studios in Oxford Street,” he said. “Mark Knopfler was recording in the next room and Frank Zappa was recording in the next room to that. I took over Studio One, the big studio. They couldn’t even get in. I had all these musicians and singers.

“Every five minutes Frank Zappa would wander in and ask “what are you recording” and then the next moment Van Morrison would walk in and then Mark Knopfler and they all used to just sit around the studio.

“The backing vocals are all those guys which was just one of those peculiar things that happened. I was burning money in there but I decided to do the track. There was a great guitarist, Big Al Hodge. He was a very underrated British guitarist who worked with me and Tina Turner. He was with me for about 10 years. It is a fantastic track. I only just remembered it recently. I hope you like it”.

Listen to the full interview with Leo Sayer (and hear the Passion story at 28 minutes 45 seconds)

Leo is working on his autobiography the ‘The Adventures of Leo Sayer: Just A Boy’. He’ll tell this story and more when book is published.

go here for the interview :arrow: http://www.noise11.com/news/van-morriso ... s-20200414

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sat Oct 03, 2020 9:16 am 
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From the Nobel comission:

Did you know CAT scans might not have been invented without the pop band The Beatles?

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The first patient brain CT scan was done on 1 October 1971. But did you know CAT scans might not have been invented without the pop band The Beatles? CT or CAT scans, integrate X-rays with digital technology to generate 3D views of inner organs and soft tissues. Doctors can see clear images of cross-sections of the brain, with the grey and white matter and liquid-filled cavities clearly visible.

Godfrey Hounsfield came up with the idea for CT scans but required considerable financial investment to get it off the ground. Help came in the aid of The Beatles' record company, EMI, whose profits had almost doubled thanks to the band's record sales. EMI began to invest a sizeable amount of money into funding bold research ideas, including Hounsfield's.

Within the space of five years Hounsfield's idea would come to fruition, and few medical achievements would be received with such unreserved enthusiasm as would his invention of computed tomography (CT).

Hounsfield shared the 1979 Medicine Prize with Allan Cormack "for the development of computer assisted tomography (CAT)."

Read more 'With a Little Help from My Friends': https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/med...
(Photo: The Beatles, Kennedy Airport, February 1964. Copyright: United States Library of Congress)
487

https://www.youtube.com/c/NobelPrize/community

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sat Oct 03, 2020 11:57 am 
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^^^^^ excellent! ^^^^^

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Mon Oct 26, 2020 8:57 pm 
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Harry Morgan had been acting so long in serious dramas like “Dragnet” that he was worried he might have lost his comedic touch. The inspection scene in “The General Flipped at Dawn” and his interaction with Gary Burghoff* showed that he had nothing to worry about and locked in his bright future with M*A*S*H.
*Burghoff said that they had to do that scene about 18 times because he couldn't hold it together when Morgan barked, "NO TALKING IN RANKS!"


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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Fri Nov 27, 2020 10:48 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Wed Dec 23, 2020 2:00 am 
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Location: >>==> Pōneke, Wellington, Aotearoa, New Zealand.
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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Mon Dec 28, 2020 4:55 am 
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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Mon Jan 04, 2021 2:17 pm 
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That Zappa alumni Max Bennett and Johnny Guerin play on "Gonna Fky Now" (aka Rocky Theme)?!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonna_Fly_Now#Personnel

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sat Jan 23, 2021 10:20 pm 
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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sun Jan 24, 2021 4:08 pm 
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Tickling the Dragon’s Trail and the Demon Core

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“Gentleman, what we have here is the most powerful force ever created by mankind. Lets poke at it with a screwdriver.”
—Louis Slotin, Los Alamos laboratory

After World War II the scientists at Los Alamos laboratory found themselves in possession of a spare core originally intended for a nuclear bomb. Nicknamed ‘“Rufus” the core would have been detonated as part of a third nuclear bomb dropped on Japan, however the Japanese surrendered before the bomb could be assembled. Instead the 89mm (3.5 inch) diameter sphere of plutonium-gallium was reserved for scientific testing, in particular criticality experiments.

Critical mass is the minimum amount of mass needed for a fissile material to sustain a nuclear chain reaction. When a fissile material reaches critical mass, it becomes “supercritical”, where it releases a large amount of energy. Rufus was 5% subcritical, thus scientists thought it was ideal for use in criticality experiments. The experiment was designed to simulate critical mass by surrounding the core with neutron reflectors, in this case tungsten carbide bricks. The bricks would deflect released neutrons back into the core, increasing it’s reactivity. Completely surrounding the core would cause it to go supercritical, an event which was to be avoided because it would release a burst of neutron radiation that could kill everyone in the room. Essentially the purpose of the experiment was to see how much nuclear material could be added to the core before it would go supercritical, and measure how much energy is released in the process.

On August 21st, 1945 physicist Harry K. Daghlian Jr. (pictured above left)was conducting a criticality experiment with Rufus when he accidentally dropped a tungsten carbide brick on the core. The core went supercritical, releasing a burst of neutron and gamma radiation while bathing the room in a bright blue light. Daghlian promptly responded by removing the brick from core, causing his hand to instantly blister from the radiation.

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Daghlian had received a deadly dose of radiation, resulting in his death 25 days later. An accompanying guard, Army Private Robert J. Hemmerly, was sitting at a desk 12 feet away but seemed unharmed by the accident, although he would die 33 years later from leukemia.

After the accident, Rufus was renamed, “The Demon Core”. A new procedure was designed to make the experiment “safer”, which was designed by physicist Louis Slotin (pictured above, right). The new procedure involved the core sitting between two beryllium half spheres. A screwdriver was jammed in between the two half spheres, creating a gap through which neutrons could escape. The screwdriver was used to manipulate the half spheres, raising or lowering them to increase or decrease the size of the gap, thus increasing or decreasing the reactivity of the core. If the two half spheres completely enclosed the core, it would go supercritical.

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If this sounds completely bonkers, you probably have more common sense than the brilliant physicists who conducted these experiments. In fact the experiment was named “Tickling the Dragon’s Tail”, based on a remark by physicist Richard Feynman who compared the experiment to “tickling a sleeping dragon”. Slotin was certainly aware of the dangerous nature of the experiment, he had been at Daghlian’s bedside when he had died. The famed physicist Enrico Fermi had warned Slotin that if he continued these criticality experiments, he would be dead within a year.

On May 26th, 1946 Slotin was conducting a criticality experiment with the demon core when he lost control of his screwdriver, causing the beryllium sphere to close. The incident is almost perfectly re-enacted in the 1989 film “Fat Man and Little Boy”, Louis Slotin died of acute radiation poisoning nine days later.

Of the other seven people in the room, two would die of cancer years later, although it is unknown whether the accident contributed to their deaths.

After these two criticality accidents new experiments were designed which used remote controlled machines and cameras. The Demon Core was melted down and recycled into other cores.

https://youtu.be/AQ0P7R9CfCY

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PostPosted: Sun Jan 24, 2021 4:41 pm 
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Location: >>==> Pōneke, Wellington, Aotearoa, New Zealand.
or

The 1958 Mars Bluff Nuclear Bomb Accident

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On March 11th, 1958 a US Air Force B-47 bomber took of from Hunter Air Force Base in Savannah, Georgia carrying a most precious payload: a Mark 6 nuclear bomb destined to be delivered to a base in the United Kingdom. The Mark 6 was a fission nuclear bomb with an explosive yield of 30 kilotons, double the yield of the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. After takeoff the pilot of the B-47, Captain Earl Koehler, noticed a fault light indicating that the bomb locking pin had not engaged. The automatic locking system was malfunctioning, meaning that Bombadier/Navigator Captain Bruce Kalka would need to descend into the bomb bay and manually set the pin. Kulka actually had little training in the B-47′s operating systems, and thus could not find where the pin was located. After several minutes of searching, he found the pin mechanism above the bomb, prompting him to climb towards it. In the cramped bomb bay Kulka instinctively grabbed onto a lever for a handhold, a lever which just happened to be the bomb release mechanism. The 7,000 lb bomb slammed onto the bomb bay doors, forcing them open. Kulka himself had a mere fraction of a second to grab onto something lest he too drop through the bomb doors.

Fortunately the Mark 6 bomb was not armed, during transportation such weapons have their nuclear cores stored separately on the plane just in case of such accidents. However, the bomb still contained a large amount of conventional explosives which is used to detonate the bomb. The bomb landed in the woods behind the home of the Gregg family near Mars Bluff, South Carolina. Father Walter Gregg was in the garage fixing a bench with his son Walter Jr. His wife Elfie was in the house sewing, while his two daughters Helen, Frances, and cousin Ella Davies were playing in the back yard. All present recall hearing a jet flying over, followed by a whistling sound and then a loud explosion. The house sustained major damage as a result of the blast, with Elfie buried under rubble. Walter and Walter Jr. exited the garage as it began to collapse, while the girls came running from the back yard covered in cuts and other wounds. One of the girls, who had been playing in a tree house, was blown clear of the tree house. Walter Gregg extricated his wife from the house then gathered his family and raced them to the hospital. Fortunately none suffered life threatening injuries.

The bomb not only damaged the Gregg house but a dozen other houses and a church nearby, resulting in shattered windows, collapsed chimneys, dozens of dead chickens, and some car accidents at a nearby highway. The blast also resulted in a crater 50 feet wide and 20 feet deep. After the accident, the B-47 crew circled around and took a photo of the devastation, then reported back to base.

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The Gregg family sued the US Government and received $30,000 in damages, roughly $500,000 adjusted for inflation. Incredibly Walter Gregg became good friends with the crew, who reached out to the family to apologize for the accident. Walter Gregg passed away in 2013 at the age of 92. A mere month before the accident a USAF bomber had accidentally dropped a hydrogen bomb into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of George. These two accidents prompted the US Air Force increased safety regulations to prevent such accidents from re-recurring, and to use more stable conventional explosives in nuclear weapons.

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sun Feb 07, 2021 3:54 pm 
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Location: >>==> Pōneke, Wellington, Aotearoa, New Zealand.
The Roman theater was a typical construction of the Empire, whose purpose was the
interpretation of Greek and Latin dramatic works.

The first theaters were built in wood and adobe; these were demolished after the event
for which they were erected was concluded.

A law prevented the construction of permanent theaters, however, in 55 a.c.
the Pompey Theater was built with a temple to avoid the law.

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Parts of a theater:

- Scaenae frons (scenic front)
- Orchestra
- Aditus
- Cavea
- Vomitoria
- Proscaenium
- Porticus post scaenam

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Tue Feb 09, 2021 1:40 pm 
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Gray_Ghost wrote:
The first theaters were built in wood and adobe; these were demolished after the event
...

Like a typical german Rolling Stones audience in the 1960s :wink:
But seriously: i have seen a lot of ancient theatres when i still could afford to have vacations including the second one from your posted images which is in the city of Aspendos in Turkey. This makes me remember an unexpected incident in another theatre in Turkey (guess it was Ephesos) where some guy stood in the center and started to sing one or two song lines to test the acoustics of the place. All other visitors immediately started to applause and asked him to go ahead so he sang the entire song (which was strange but beautyfull, maybe some folksong from where he came from).

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sat Feb 27, 2021 7:32 pm 
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mmmmm.....

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Mon Aug 30, 2021 7:47 pm 
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Did you know that word slang is slang for short language?

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 Post subject: Re: Did You Know?
PostPosted: Sat Sep 04, 2021 8:52 am 
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Gray_Ghost wrote:
Did you know that word slang is slang for short language?

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