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PostPosted: Wed Feb 27, 2019 7:07 am 
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How Kodak discovered the atomic bomb:
https://www.popularmechanics.com/scienc ... e-fallout/

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PostPosted: Wed Feb 27, 2019 9:42 am 
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Kodak actually had a reactor too...I worked there for 26 years and never knew it...

https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/05/ ... 15463.html

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PostPosted: Sun Sep 01, 2019 6:46 am 
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Have You Seen Any Nazi Uranium? These Researchers Want To Know
August 31, 20198:03 AM ET
Geoff Brumfie
https://www.npr.org/2019/08/31/755478866/have-you-seen-any-nazi-uranium-these-researchers-want-to-know
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Timothy Koeth's office is crammed with radioactive relics — old watches with glowing radium dials, pieces of melted glass from beneath the test of the world's first nuclear weapon.

But there is one artifact that stands apart from the rest: a dense, charcoal-black cube, 2 inches on a side. The cube is made of pure uranium metal. It was forged more than 70 years ago by the Nazis, and it tells the little-known story of Germany's nuclear efforts during World War II.

"From a historical perspective this cube weighs a lot more than 5 pounds," Koeth, a physicist at the University of Maryland, says as he holds it in his hand.

The cube entered Koeth's life on a hot August day in 2013. He was out for a jog when a friend called him on his phone.

"They said, 'I need to meet you as soon as possible,' " Koeth says.

Koeth told his friend to drive to a nearby parking lot. Twenty minutes later, he found himself staring at a small satchel in the trunk of the car. Inside, wrapped in paper towels was the cube.

"I looked at my friend and I said, 'Do you know what that is?' " Koeth recalls. "And my friend said, 'I think so, do you know what it is?' "

It turned out they didn't need to guess because wrapped around the cube was a piece of paper with the words, "Gift of Ninninger [sic], piece of uranium from the reactor Hitler tried to build."

At the time of Hitler's rise, Germany was actually at the cutting edge of nuclear technology. "Nuclear fission was discovered in Berlin in late 1938," says Alex Wellerstein, a historian of science at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N.J. "They were the first team of people who figured out how to split the atom, and figured out that when you split the atom, a lot of energy was going to be released."

That basic idea of splitting atoms to release energy is what's at the heart of all of today's nuclear power plants and all the world's nuclear weapons.

But back during World War II, it was all theoretical. To find out how it could work, the Germans devised strange looking experiment. Scientists strung together 664 cubes of uranium with aircraft cables and suspended them. The result looked "kind of like a very strange modernist chandelier of cubes," Wellerstein says.

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The chandelier was dipped into a cylindrical tank of heavy water, which contains special isotopes of hydrogen that make it more conducive to nuclear reactions.

The setup was known as the B-VIII reactor. The Germans were experimenting with it inside a cave in the southern town of Haigerloch. They were still trying to get it to work when the Allied invasion began. As Allied forces approached, the German scientists disassembled the reactor and buried the cubes in a field.

The first wave of Allied troops to arrive included a task force known as Alsos, which was seeking to seize as much of the Nazi program as they could.

The Nazi scientists quickly disclosed the location of the buried cubes to the Allies, Wellerstein says. The Alsos team boxed up the cubes, to send them back to America, but what happened after that is not entirely clear.

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"The records on this kind of stuff are less good than you might expect, given what they are," Wellerstein says.

The news that the U.S. government has misplaced over 600 cubes of Nazi uranium might seem highly alarming. However, the cubes are made of natural uranium, which is not particularly radioactive or valuable.

And Wellerstein points out that the Nazi program never even got close to building a bomb. It's really a footnote in the history books.

But Timothy Koeth doesn't see it as a footnote. At the start of the war, the Americans thought the Nazis were racing toward a bomb, and that's a big part of why they rushed ahead with the Manhattan Project to build the world's first nuclear weapon.

As Koeth sees it, it was the fear of the little black cubes like the one on his desk that launched the nuclear age.

"Nuclear weapons, nuclear power, the Cold War, this nuclear hostage that the planet is held in — it's all motivated by this effort that produced just these 600-and-some cubes," Koeth says.

Which is why Koeth is determined to find out what happened to them. Starting with the one from the trunk of the car. And a big clue was in that note wrapped around the cube.

"Literally just a few weeks later I was at a flea market and was looking through a box of science books and came across this book called Minerals for Atomic Energy by Robert D. Nininger," Koeth says.

It turns out Robert Nininger was in charge of inventory for part of the Manhattan Project. It's likely that he oversaw the arrival of the Nazi cubes from Europe. Miriam Hiebert, a post-doctoral researcher working with Koeth, says it's possible Nininger or one of his colleagues handed out a few cubes as souvenirs.

"It sounds nuts to us, but physicists back in the 1940s, it wouldn't have been quite as alarming," she says with a laugh.

Koeth and Hiebert were able to verify that Nininger did have a cube, which he kept in his possession until he died. It was found in his estate, and passed to Koeth's friend, who gave it to him.

In fact, there are a few other cubes out there. One was donated to Harvard by a physicist who worked on the original Alsos mission to recover the uranium. The Smithsonian has one that was found in the back of a drawer in New Jersey. And another one in Germany was recovered from a creek. It was reportedly tossed away by the famous physicist Werner Heisenberg, as he fled ahead of the approaching Allied forces.

There are still around 650 cubes completely unaccounted for. It's possible that many were fed into the U.S. government's nuclear complex after the war and eventually manufactured into American atomic weapons.

But Hiebert and Koeth believe that many, perhaps most, of the cubes survived.

"It genuinely would not shock me at all if they're sitting in a box somewhere and nobody has wanted to move this really heavy box for the past 70 years," Hiebert says. She and Koeth are hoping someone will stumble across the missing uranium and give them a call.

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PostPosted: Sat Sep 07, 2019 9:52 am 
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Henry Ford was a Fascist!
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ykP7utXGiCk

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PostPosted: Mon Sep 09, 2019 6:07 am 
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The Dutch news NOS has a site dedicated to 75 years of liberation. The south of The Netherlands was liberated in the first weeks of September, the north had to wait until May 1945. Must-read if you can even sort-of-make-headway using your knowledge of German and Google Translate.

https://nos.nl/75jaarbevrijding/nieuws/pagina/1

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PostPosted: Mon Nov 04, 2019 9:51 am 
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Today 75 years ago the picturesque town of Heusden was bombed by the Nazis. Among the bombed buildings were three church towers and the tower of the town hall.

At the time around 200 people were seeking refuge in the town hall. 135 people lost their lives.

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stadhuisramp_Heusden

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PostPosted: Mon Nov 04, 2019 8:21 pm 
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Just caught the end of a documentary of a man named Grady Gaston who survived 141 days...that's five months!! on a deserted Australian island. He was the last of the original four who survived the crash of his B-24 Liberator. Dec 2nd 1942
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Wow! That's going on the "to read" list :shock:
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PostPosted: Fri Nov 29, 2019 1:32 pm 
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Anybody got any suggestions for literature on the Pacific War?

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PostPosted: Sun Dec 01, 2019 1:50 am 
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I've got a nice book on the Battle of Midway by one of the commanders on a Japanese ship that got ill on the day of the battle. Will check out the name when I get home...

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PostPosted: Sun Dec 01, 2019 4:36 am 
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My uncle who was German, during WWII, told me some interesting details about how life was
like during the war. When Hitler first power, most felt he was okay. The economy was better.
My uncle joined the Hitler Youth. Not because he supported Hitler, but because he loved the outdoors
and camping. When he turned 18, he joined the army. He got assigned to Rommel's Desert Corps.
He met Gen. Rommel a few times and liked him. He said he really cared for his troops.
On his first mission as a paratrooper, he was captured by the British. He was thankful it wasn't
the Russians. He spent the entire rest of the war in a POW camp. He said the British treated
him well. He told me "Hitler was a jerk. I was fighting for my Fatherland, not for him."

My uncle was from Bonn, Germany. During the war, Beethoven's music
would be played constantly on the radio. He quickly grew to hate Beethoven.

sorry...long post. I just got to thinking about my (deceased) uncle today.


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PostPosted: Sun Dec 01, 2019 6:04 am 
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MOOP wrote:
My uncle who was German, during WWII, told me some interesting details about how life was
like during the war. When Hitler first power, most felt he was okay. The economy was better.
My uncle joined the Hitler Youth. Not because he supported Hitler, but because he loved the outdoors
and camping. When he turned 18, he joined the army. He got assigned to Rommel's Desert Corps.
He met Gen. Rommel a few times and liked him. He said he really cared for his troops.
On his first mission as a paratrooper, he was captured by the British. He was thankful it wasn't
the Russians. He spent the entire rest of the war in a POW camp. He said the British treated
him well. He told me "Hitler was a jerk. I was fighting for my Fatherland, not for him."

My uncle was from Bonn, Germany. During the war, Beethoven's music
would be played constantly on the radio. He quickly grew to hate Beethoven.

sorry...long post. I just got to thinking about my (deceased) uncle today.

Very interesting, thanks for sharing that! It's easy for us to think of these fascist movements as being so aggressive and obvious; and to get upset with people for "letting it happen". Here is a good example of how subtle and insidious these types of things can be. One day everyone feels things are fine, the next you wake up in Nazi Germany. Something to always keep in mind...

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PostPosted: Thu Jan 30, 2020 11:32 pm 
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Today 75 years ago the Battle for the Kapelsche Veer ended - a bloody and pointless battle over a minor bridge:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_fo ... lsche_Veer

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PostPosted: Sat Aug 01, 2020 10:44 pm 
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Location: >>==> Pōneke, Wellington, Aotearoa, New Zealand.
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Second Lieutenant Margaret B. Stanfill preparing dressings three miles southeast of Sainte-Mère-Église on 14th of June, 1944.
Stanfill was the first nurse to land on Utah Beach.

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PostPosted: Wed Aug 05, 2020 9:30 pm 
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Today it has been 75 years since Hiroshima...

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PostPosted: Fri Aug 07, 2020 11:19 pm 
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“Rough Rider” - Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (son of the 26th U.S. President)
the only general on D-Day to land by sea with first wave of troops.
Pictured here in Italy, January 17th, 1944.

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PostPosted: Wed Aug 12, 2020 12:13 pm 
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 05, 2020 5:27 pm 
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• 82nd Airborne Division

The 82nd Airborne Division is an airborne infantry division of the United States Army established in 1917, shortly after the American entry into World War I. Specializing in parachute assault operations into denied areas.

The 82nd Division was first constituted as an infantry division on August 5th, 1917 during World War I in the National Army. It was organized and formally activated on August 25th, 1917 at Camp Gordon, Georgia. The division consisted entirely of newly conscripted soldiers. The citizens of Atlanta held a contest to give a nickname to the new division. Major General Eben Swift, the commanding general, chose "All American" to reflect the unique composition of the 82nd, as it had soldiers from all 48 states. It sailed to Europe to join the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), commanded by General John Pershing, on the Western Front. In early April, the division embarked from the ports in Boston, New York and Brooklyn to Liverpool, England, where the division fully assembled by mid-May 1918. During the first world war the Division participated in the St. Mihiel offensive, and Meuse-Argonne offensive. During the later campaign the division suffered 7,000 killed and wounded. A second 82nd soldier, Alvin C. York, received the Medal of Honor for his actions during this campaign. The division suffered 995 killed and 7,082 wounded, for a total of 8,077 casualties. Following the war's end, the division moved to training areas near Prauthoy, where it remained through February 1919. It returned to the United States in April and May, and was demobilized and deactivated at Camp Mills, New York, on May 27th. For the next 20 years the 82nd Division existed as a unit of the Organized Reserve. It was reconstituted in June 1921 establishing headquarters at Columbia, South Carolina, in January 1922.

The 82nd Division was redesignated on February 13th, 1942 during World War II, just two months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the German declaration of war, as Division Headquarters, 82nd Division. It was recalled to active service on March 25th, 1942, and reorganized at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, under the command of Major General Omar Bradley. During this training period, the division brought together three officers who would ultimately steer the U.S. Army during the following two decades: Matthew Ridgway, James M. Gavin, and Maxwell D. Taylor. On August 15th, 1942, the 82nd Infantry Division, now commanded by Major General Ridgway, became the first airborne division in the history of the U.S. Army, and was redesignated as the 82nd Airborne Division. The division initially consisted of the 325th, 326th and 327th Infantry Regiments, and supporting units. The 327th was soon transferred to help form the 101st Airborne Division and was replaced by the 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment, leaving the division with two regiments of glider infantry and one of parachute infantry.

In February 1943 the division received another change when the 326th was transferred to the 13th Airborne Division, being replaced by the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, under James M. Gavin, then a colonel, who was later destined to command the division. In April 1943, after several months of tough training, its troopers deployed to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, under the command of Major General Ridgway to take part in the campaign to invade Sicily. The division's first two combat operations were parachute assaults into Sicily on July 9th and Salerno on September 13th, 1943. The initial assault on Sicily, by the 505th Parachute Regimental Combat Team, under Colonel Gavin, was the first regimental-sized combat parachute assault conducted by the United States Army. Glider troopers of the 319th and 320th Glider Field Artillery Battalions and the 325th Glider Infantry Regiment (and the 3rd Battalion of the 504th PIR) instead arrived in Italy by landing craft at Maiori (319th) and Salerno (320th, 325th).

In January 1944, the 504th, commanded by Colonel Reuben Tucker, which was temporarily detached to fight at Anzio, adopted the nickname "Devils in Baggy Pants", taken from an entry in a German officer's diary. The 504th was replaced in the division by the inexperienced 507th Parachute Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel George V. Millet, Jr.. While the 504th was detached, the remainder of the 82nd Airborne Division moved to the United Kingdom in November 1943 to prepare for the liberation of Europe. With two combat drops under its belt, the 82nd Airborne Division was now ready for the most ambitious airborne operation of the war so far, as part of Operation Neptune, the Allied invasion of Normandy. The division conducted Mission Boston, part of the airborne assault phase of the Operation Overlord plan. In preparation for the operation, the division was significantly reorganized. To ease the integration of replacement troops, rest, and refitting following the fighting in Italy, the 504th PIR did not rejoin the division for the invasion. Two new parachute infantry regiments (PIRs), the 507th and the 508th, provided it, along with the veteran 505th, a three-parachute infantry regiment punch. The 325th was also reinforced by the addition of the 3rd Battalion of the 401st GIR, bringing it up to a strength of three battalions. On the 5th and 6th of June these paratroopers, parachute artillery elements, and the 319th and 320th, boarded hundreds of transport planes and gliders to begin history's largest airborne assault at the time (only Operation Market Garden later that year would be larger). During the June 6th assault, a 508th platoon leader, First Lieutenant Robert P. Mathias, would be the first U.S. Army officer killed by German fire on D-Day. On June 7th, after this first wave of attack, the 325th GIR would arrive by glider to provide a division reserve. In Normandy, the 82nd gained its first Medal of Honor of the war, belonging to Private First Class Charles N. DeGlopper of the 325th GIR. By the time the division was relieved, in early July, the 82nd had seen 33 days of severe combat and casualties had been heavy. Losses included 5,245 troopers killed, wounded, or missing, for a total of 46% casualties.

Following Normandy, the 82nd Airborne Division returned to England to rest and refit for future airborne operations. The 82nd became part of the newly organized XVIII Airborne Corps, which consisted of the 17th, 82nd, and 101st Airborne Divisions. Ridgway was given command of the corps but was not promoted to lieutenant general until 1945. His recommendation for succession as division commander was Brigadier General James M. Gavin, previously the 82nd's ADC. Ridgway's recommendation met with approval, and upon promotion Gavin became the youngest general since the Civil War to command a U.S. Army division. On August 2nd, 1944 the division became part of the First Allied Airborne Army. In September, the 82nd began planning for Operation Market Garden in the Netherlands. The operation called for three-plus airborne divisions to seize and hold key bridges and roads deep behind German lines. The 504th PIR, now back at full strength, was reassigned to the 82nd, while the 507th was assigned to the 17th Airborne Division, at the time training in England. On September 17th, the "All American" Division conducted its fourth (and final) combat jump of World War II. Fighting off German counterattacks, the division captured its objectives between Grave, and Nijmegen. The division failed to capture Nijmegen Bridge when the opportunity presented itself early in the battle. When the British XXX Corps arrived in Nijmegen, six hours ahead of schedule, they found themselves having to fight to take a bridge that should have already been in allied hands. In the afternoon of Wednesday September 20th, 1944, the 82nd Airborne Division conducted a successfully opposed river assault on the river crossing of the Waal river. The Market Garden salient was held in a defensive operation for several weeks until the 82nd was relieved by Canadian troops, and sent into reserve in France.

On December 16th, 1944, the Germans launched a surprise offensive through the Ardennes Forest, which became known as the Battle of the Bulge. In SHAEF reserve, the 82nd was committed on the northern face of the bulge near Elsenborn Ridge. On December 20th, 1944, the 82nd Airborne Division was assigned to take Cheneux where they would force the Waffen SS Division Leibstandarte's Kampfgruppe Peiper into a fighting retreat. On December 22nd,1944, the 82nd Airborne faced counterattacks from three powerful Waffen SS divisions which included the 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, and the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen. The Waffen SS efforts to relieve Kampfgruppe Peiper failed due to the stubborn defense of the 82nd Airborne. On December 23rd, the German divisions attacked from the south and overran the 325th GIR holding the Baraque- Fraiture crossroads on the 82nd's southern flank, endangering the entire 82nd Airborne division. The 2nd SS Panzer's objective was to outflank the 82nd Airborne. It was not an attack designed to reach Peiper, but it was his last chance, nonetheless. If it did outflank the 82nd, it could have opened a corridor and reached the stranded yet still powerful Kampfgruppe. But the attack came too late. On December 24th, 1944, the 82nd Airborne Division with an official strength of 8,520 men was facing off against a vastly superior combined force of 43,000 men and over 1,200 armored fighting and artillery vehicles and pieces. Due to these circumstances, the 82nd Airborne Division was forced to withdrawal for the first time in its combat history. The Germans pursued their retreat with the 2nd and 9th SS Panzer Divisions. On January 3rd, 1945, the 82nd Airborne Division conducted a counterattack. On the first day's fighting the Division overran the 62nd Volksgrenadiers and the 9th SS Panzer's positions capturing 2,400 prisoners. The 82nd Airborne suffered high casualties in the process. The attached 551st Parachute Infantry Battalion was all but destroyed during these attacks. Of the 826 men who went into the Ardennes, only 110 came out. Having lost its charismatic leader Lt. Colonel Joerg, and almost all its men either wounded, killed, or frostbitten, the 551 was never reconstituted. The few soldiers who remained were later absorbed into units of the 82nd Airborne. For the 82nd Airborne Division the first part of the Battle of the Bulge had ended.

After helping to secure the Ruhr, the 82nd Airborne Division ended the war at Ludwigslust past the Elbe River, accepting the surrender of over 150,000 men of Lieutenant General Kurt von Tippelskirch's 21st Army. Following Germany's surrender, the 82nd Airborne Division entered Berlin for occupation duty, replacing the 2nd Armored Division in August 1945. In Berlin General George S. Patton was so impressed with the 82nd's honor guard he said, "In all my years in the Army and all the honor guards I have ever seen, the 82nd's honor guard is undoubtedly the best." Hence the "All-American" became also known as "America's Guard of Honor". During the war the 82nd Division suffered 9,073 total casualties with 1,619 being killed in action and 6,560 wounded.

The division returned to the United States on January 3rd, 1946 on the RMS Queen Mary. In New York City it led a big Victory Parade, January 12th, 1946. In 1957, the division implemented the pentomic organization (officially Reorganization of the Airborne Division (ROTAD)) in order to better prepare for tactical nuclear war in Europe. In April 1965, the "All-Americans" entered the civil war in the Dominican Republic. Spearheaded by the 3rd Brigade, the 82nd deployed in Operation Power Pack. The 82nd later participated in the Vietnam War, and was stationed to deal with riots in Detroit in the 1967 Detroit Riot. After 11 September attacks on the United States in 2001, the 82nd's 49th Public Affairs Detachment deployed to Afghanistan in October 2001 in support of Operation Enduring Freedom along with several individual 82nd soldiers who deployed to the Central Command area of responsibility to support combat operations. More recently, the 82nd Airborne has been conducting operations in Iraq, advising and assisting Iraqi Security Forces.

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PostPosted: Fri Sep 11, 2020 4:39 pm 
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King George VI inspects an airborne jeep fitted with a Vickers machine gun during a visit to the airborne forces in Southern Command, 21 May 1942. With him is Major-General Frederick Browning, GOC of the 1st Airborne Division.

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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2020 6:33 am 
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2020 9:31 am 
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American 240mm howitzer in use in Italy, the largest “mobile” gun deployed by the US in WWII.

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PostPosted: Sat Sep 12, 2020 12:04 pm 
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Why Everyone Knows The Gurkha

The Gurkha are Nepalese soldiers. In the last few centuries they have served, at various times, in the the British, Indian, and Nepalese military. Gurkha have a legacy of bravery and incredible exploits, both as units and as individuals. This anecdote is a good example of why:

When President Sukarno of Indonesia announced, in 1963, that he was going to “crush Malaysia,” British forces were sent in to oppose his attack – which meant that the Gurkhas from Nepal were called in to help.
Tim Bowden, in his book, One Crowded Hour, wrote about how the Gurkhas were asked if they would be willing to jump from transport planes into combat. Surprisingly, the Gurkhas, who usually agreed to anything, provisionally rejected the plan. A cameraman, Neil Davis, told Bowden an incident that went something like this:
The next day, one of the Gurkha officers sought out the British officer who made the request. “We have talked it over, and are prepared to jump under certain conditions.”
“What are they?”
“We’ll jump if the land is marshy or reasonably soft with no rocky outcrops.” The British officer said that the dropping area would almost certainly be over jungle, and there would not be rocky outcrops.
“Anything else?”
“Yes,” said the Gurkha. “We want the plane to fly as slowly as possible and no more than one hundred feet high.”
The British officer told them the planes always fly as slow as possible when dropping troops, but to jump from one hundred feet was impossible, because the parachutes wouldn’t open in time.
“Oh,” the Gurkha responded. “That’s all right then. We’ll jump . . . you didn’t tell us we would have parachutes.”

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PostPosted: Thu Oct 15, 2020 12:49 pm 
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Location: EINDHOVEN
Unfortunately two second-world-war museums in the south of The Netherlands have recently been robbed - last night robbers took over €50,000 worth from a museum in Ossendrecht. The owner is a private person and wasn't insured.

https://www.omroepbrabant.nl/nieuws/3276695/oorlogsmuseum-in-ossendrecht-leeggeroofd-tonnen-aan-zeldzame-museumstukken-buitgemaakt

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